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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2017
Volume 5 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-42

Online since Tuesday, July 11, 2017

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Evaluation of the lumbar-sacral configuration: A radiographic study of young adults in Southern Nigeria p. 1
Michael Omonkheoa Oyakhire, Alaba Udoaka
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.210251  
Introduction: Compared with other populations, African spines, have not been adequately studied and consequently, surgical interventions on the spine rely on assumptions and data from studies done on non-Nigerians. Materials and Methods: Lateral lumbosacral X-ray films of 120 informed volunteers who met relevant inclusion criteria were studied. Three parameters frequently employed to characterize the lumbosacral region in the assessment of spinal health; Lumbar Lordotic Angle (LLA), Lumbar Lordotic Depth (LLD) and Lumbosacral Angle (LSA),were measured using standard radiographic procedures. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Confidence interval was set at 95% defining P ≤ 0.05 of statistical significance. Results: On the average, the subjects were 27 years old (males 28 and females 24). Mean (SE) of weight was 66.59 (1.06) kg; males 65.71 (1.18) kg, females 67.80 (2.04) kg. Mean (SE) of height was 1.66 (0.01) m, females 1.6 (0.01) m, males 1.69 (0.01). Mean (SE) of BMI was 24.32 (0.41); males 23.04 (0.39), females 26.45 (0.79). Mean (SE) of LSA was 31.12 (0.46) 0; females 32.04 (0.91) 0, males 30.56 (0.50) 0.Mean (SE) LLA 51.34 (0.76) 0; females 49.84 (1.23) 0, males 52.24 (0.96) 0.Mean (SE) LLD 3.23 (0.04) cm; males 3.15 (0.05) cm, females 3. 36 (0.07) cm. Significant associations were found between the following variables; age and LLA (r2= 0.158, P < 0.001), age and LLD (r2 = 0.224, P < 0.001), LSA and LLA (r2 = 0.034, P = 0.044), LSA and LLD (r2 = 0.042, P = 0.024), LLA and LLD (r2 = 0.555, P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study is probably the first to be carried out on living subjects in Nigeria and the data it provides will be useful for further research and will also add to existing knowledge on African spines.
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Histomorphological effects of nicotine on the kidney p. 9
Emmanuel Igho Odokuma, Joan Eseoghene Adogbeji
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.210254  
Introduction: This experimental animal study was designed to investigate the histomorphological effects of nicotine on the kidneys of matured adult Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Permission for the study was obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology Ethics Committee (DELSU/CHS/ANA/68/43), and it involved 36 rats which were randomly assigned into three test and one control group. While animals in the control group (Group A) received only water and feed, 2 mg/day, 4 mg/day, and 6 mg/day of pure nicotine in solution was orally administered to test Groups B, C, and D, respectively (dose: 50 mg/kg/day). At the end of 7, 21, and 42 days, one experimental animal was selected from each of the groups at random, euthanized, and the harvested kidneys processed by standard techniques The obtained tissue samples were viewed with a digital light microscope (Scopetek DCM 500, 20.0 mega pixel) connected through a USB to an HP computer. Results: The control group showed normal histomorphologic features, but the test groups which were dose and time dependent showed progressive histological alterations. Glomerulosclerosis and widening of the glomerular space were observed following acute and subacute exposure unlike with the chronically exposed rats in which an intact renal structural integrity was documented. Conclusion: This study that prolonged exposure to orally administered nicotine within normal doses had minimal effects on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats.
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Sexual dimorphism in frontal sinus of Southeast Nigerians p. 14
Uchenna Kenneth Ezemagu, C I. P Anibeze, Frank Chinedu Akpuaka
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.210248  
Background: The functional and adaptive significance of frontal sinus is still very poorly understood and attempt to link frontal sinus patterns with specific influences such as sex or biological affinity have been inconclusive. Purpose: The study aims to demonstrate the influence and this relationship between the variation in frontal sinus dimensions and sex. Materials and Method: In this study, lateral and anteroposterior radiographs of 74 males and 46 females of Southeast Nigerians taken from August 18, 2003 to July 12, 2004 were measured (age 9–75). Data were analyzed using excel package of a desktop computer, employing Chi-square test to determine the association between sinus dimensions and sex. Result: The result showed that variation in frontal sinus breadth and depth may not depend on sex while variation in height slightly depends on sex (P < 0.05). Thus, establishing the fact that some metric and morphologic characteristics of the frontal sinus depend on sex. Conclusion: This finding depicts a sexual dimorphism in frontal sinus dimension. Moreover, it adds an additional factor to the puzzle of the meaning of the supra orbital development and morphologic characteristics.
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Determination of the palmar ridge counts and angles in acquired idiopathic blindness in some selected schools for the blind in Nigeria p. 18
JN Paul, EA Osunwoke, CW Paul
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.210249  
Background: Ridges are delicately sculpted skin surface and their configural arrangements present on human fingers, toes, and soles. Aim: This study was aimed at determining the palmar ridge counts and palmar angles in acquired idiopathic blindness. Materials and Methods: The study had 72 subjects comprising 36 blind (14 females and 22 males) and 36 nonblind (18 females and 18 males). Palmar prints were obtained using print scanner (HP G3110 Photo Scanner). Results: The mean and standard deviation of the ridge counts for the total blind subjects: on the right hand, A–B was 26.02 ± 2.96, B–C was 27.04 ± 2.81, C–D was 33.16 ± 3.55; and on the left hand, A–B was 26.51 ± 2.38, B–C was 26.99 ± 2.89, and C–D was 33.20 ± 3.44. Considering the total ridge counts for the nonblind subjects on the right hand: A-B was 35.53 ± 1.99, B-C was 22.83 ± 1.87, and C-D was 41.20 ± 2.75; and on the left hand: A-B was 32.72 ± 2.54, B-C was 22.89 ± 2.24, and C-D was 41.30 ± 2.57. The palmar angles had the following values for the blind: on the right hand, ATD angle was 38.69° ± 3.65°, DAT angle was 60.11° ± 4.45°, and TDA angle was 81.19° ± 4.06°, while on the left hand: ATD angle was 38.47° ± 4.14°, DAT angle was 60.28° ± 4.49°, and TDA angle was 81.19° ± 4.50°. Conclusion: This study provides baseline information for researchers who will find it relevant in the course of their research with respect to palmar ridge counts and angles.
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Body mass index of male and female Wistar rats following administration of leptin hormone after a dietary regime p. 22
Ahmed Muhammed Rabiu, H Wale, K Garba, AM Sabo, Z Hassan, AI Shugaba, UG Egesie, SO Odeh
DOI:10.4103/aoba.aoba_17_16  
Introduction: Obesity is a problem affecting people of all ages and socioeconomic status. Leptin hormone (LH), a product of the obesity gene, is a key regulator of feeding and energy expenditure. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the effect of LH on body mass index (BMI) in Wistar rats after a diet regime. Materials and Methods: Forty rats (male [M], n = 20; female [F], n = 20), aged 9 weeks and weighing 77.2–123.0 g, were randomly divided into two Groups A (M) and B (F) and further divided into four subgroups of n = 5. They were maintained ad libitum on different diet and water for 10 weeks. Group 1; control (standard rat feed), Group 2 (high fat diet), Group 3 (protein diet), and Group 4 (carbohydrate diet). BMI was calculated weekly for 10 weeks (pretest). LH was injected for 2 weeks; the BMI was then calculated (posttest). Paired t-test was used to analyze the differences between the BMI pre- and post-test periods and also to analyze for sexual dimorphism for the pre- and post-test periods. Level of significance was at P < 0.05. Results: The results revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the BMI for the pre- and post-test period and no sexual dimorphism for BMI during the pretest period. However, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) and sexual dimorphism for BMI during the posttest period. Conclusion: This result implies that the LH is more effective in the male gender than the female when considering BMI and hence may reduce the risk associated with obesity.
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Role of volatile organic compounds from gloss paint, emulsion, and thinner on the testes of wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) p. 27
Adeoye Oyetunji Oyewopo, Joseph Babatunde Dare, Olugbemi Tope Olaniyan, Akunna Godson Gabriel
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.210252  
Introduction: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in paint are considered harmful to the environment, especially for people who work with them on a regular basis. Aim: In this study, we investigated the effect of VOCs in gloss paint, emulsion, and thinner on the testes of male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty adult Wistar rats (100–200 g) were assigned to four (4) groups (A–D) of five rats each. Groups A (thinner), B (emulsion paint), and C (gloss paint) were exposed to fumes from one coating of an improvised chamber for 1 h daily for 21 days while Group D was the control group exposed to fresh air. The rats were exposed to the test chemicals using an improvised chamber of a carton with dimensions 37 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm and had a cross-ventilation (aeration) with six triangular holes of base 4 cm with spaces approximately 1 cm apart and 2 cm on each side. The rats were usually brought out of the animal house, placed in the carton coated with their respective paints for a period of 1 h daily, and then returned to the animal house under normal standard room temperature for 21 days. The rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last exposure day, by cervical dislocation. Results: In this study, the t-test for the body weight of the animal showed no statistical significance (P > 0.05). There was a significant decrease in sperm count and motility and deranged testicular profile in the groups exposed to nitrocellulose thinner, emulsion paint, and gloss paint. The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values increased from those exposed to gloss paint, control thinner, and emulsion. The luteinizing hormone (LH) values increased from emulsion, control, gloss, and thinner. The testosterone (TT) values increased from gloss, emulsion, control, and thinner. Conclusion: We concluded that the exposure to VOCs present in paint has a deleterious effect on the reproductive potentials of an adult male Wistar rat.
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Artifacts in histology: A 1-year retrospective study p. 34
Odokuma Emmanuel Igho, Aifuobhokhan Aimakhume
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.210253  
Introduction: Histology is a science of the analysis of tissue architecture; however, the presence of artifacts in microscopic sections may result in misdiagnosis. Despite documented common occurrences, studies on the patterns of artifacts in Nigeria are however scant. The rarity of descriptions in this clumsy but important component of histology stimulated our interest in demonstrating the various patterns of artifacts in a laboratory. This 1-year retrospective study was conducted in Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Delta State. Materials and Methods: Tissue sections were viewed and with the aid of a microscope to check for the various patterns of artifacts. These artifacts were seen as artificial structures or tissue alternations on the prepared slide. Histological images were captured using eyepiece Scopetek DCM 500, 5.0 Megapixel connected USB 2.0 computer. Data were obtained by standard microscopic techniques in which the various patterns of tissue alterations were described. Permission for this study was obtained from the hospital Ethics Committee (ethical number FMC/ASB/T/A81/198). Results: This review of patterns of artifacts showed that during the 1-year period, of the 388 slides reviewed, 94.59% had the presence of artifacts. The results also revealed that fold artifacts were the most prevalent patterns constituting about 33.00% of the total tissue sections observed, followed by artifacts attributed to microtomy which accounted for 18.47% and formalin pigment artifacts, 14.78%. The least was heat and hemorrhagic artifacts which contributed to about 0.25%. Conclusion: In conclusion, fold artifacts were the most prevalent patterns observed in this study due to the thin sections which easily stretch around other structures having different constituencies if the tissue is not carefully lifted from the water bath.
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CASE REPORT Top

Anomalous renal vasculature p. 40
Chike Ikechukwu Patrick Anibeze, Christian Chiemeka Ozor, Ogugua Augustine Egwu, Jude Ikechukwu Nnaji, Bright Ozuroke Enyinda, Blessing Amara Iwunze
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.210255  
Presence of anomalous structures has been continually observed in human body specimens. Such variations have been observed in renal vasculature. During routine dissection of a young adult male cadaver at the Dissection Hall of the Anatomy Department of Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College of Medicine, Parklane, GRA, Enugu, Nigeria, we found multiple renal vasculatures. There were four separate renal arteries arising directly from abdominal aorta on the left. On the right, one major artery gives an early branch and three branches close to the hilum before separately entering the renal parenchyma. The venous vasculature also displays an obvious variation of a bifurcated vein on the right and a normal single vein on the left. These may predispose to easy factors of partial occlusion or compression of renal vasculature resulting in varicocele or hypertension. Similarly, blood circulation through the renal arteries, in case of multiple branching pattern, may result in altered hemodynamics. The knowledge of these anomalous vasculatures is significant since it is known that microvascular techniques for renal transplantation surgeries require a thorough anatomical knowledge of accessory or multiple vasculatures for better outcomes.
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