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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sonographic evaluation of normal liver sizes of school children in south-east Nigeria
Salome N Ezeofor, Anyanwu G Emeka, Obikili N Emmanuel
January-June 2014, 2(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.143406  
Introduction: Race, ethnicity, and pathologies are some of the factors noted to affect liver sizes. Despite several reports on liver sizes of children from different countries, normative data on liver dimensions of children remain scanty in our population. The objective of this study was to establish the normal values of the liver in healthy school children in south-east Nigeria and to correlate them with body indices. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional prospective study of 1315 children between the ages of 5 and 17 years was conducted. Data on age, sex, and anthropometric measurements of body size indicators such as WT, HT, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index were obtained. Sonographic measurements of the liver were done with the subjects in a supine position. Length was measured after clear visualization in the midclavicular line for the right lobe and mid-sagittal plane for the left lobe, from the highest to the lowest points of the liver. The liver span was measured from the most inferior aspect of the liver on the right diagonally to the most lateral point. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results : Age and all the body size indices correlated positively and significantly with the liver dimensions (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). BSA correlated best with the liver dimensions. The dimension of the right liver length correlated best with body habitus, followed by liver span. Liver sizes in males were larger than those in females. A regression model for prediction of liver dimension was computed. Baseline data for liver sizes with upper and lower limits at 5 th and 95 th percentiles, respectively, were determined. Conclusion : The liver sizes in Nigerian children were noted to be similar to those reported for Brazilians in South America, but larger than the values reported in China, Thai, Turkey, and Arab countries.
  16,457 538 1
The study of nutritional status and academic performance of primary school children in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Florence Opoola, Samuel Sunday Adebisi, Augustine Oseloka Ibegbu
July-December 2016, 4(2):96-100
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.204680  
Aim: The present study was carried out to assess the relationship between nutritional status and academic performance of primary school children in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: School children from primary 3 to 6 were enrolled for the study and they were selected from three randomly selected primary schools within Zaria in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 759 pupils made up of 385 girls and 374 boys were assessed. Ethical clearance was obtained from Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, and self-administered questionnaires were completed by the parents or guardians of the children. Body anthropometrics such as height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference were measured using a stadiometer and a measuring tape from which the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The nutritional status of the children was determined using the Centre for Disease Control standard for BMI percentile, while the academic performance of the children was determined by finding the mean of five subjects taken during term examination. Results: The results of the present study showed that overweight children performed better academically when compared to the other children with a mean academic score of 66.19 ± 17.00; underweight was observed to be more prevalent among the males than the females, while on the other hand, overweight was more prominent in females than males. Conclusion: The present study showed that a high percentage of the population has healthy weight, while only a small proportion was obese. This could be a result of imbalance in the food intake of the population, and from the results, it was observed that the total number of children who were overweight performed better academically than the others, which could mean that the children who were well fed and well nourished tend to do better academically than those who are not.
  8,955 482 2
Prevalence of malaria and typhoid coinfection among patients in some hospitals in Samaru, Zaria
Christian E Mbah, Blessing Agu
July-December 2014, 2(2):43-48
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.153813  
Background: A large number of staff and students live off-campus (cannot be accommodated on campus) because of limited space. Most of them live in houses where there are no clean, safe drinking water and poor or no drainage system. The investigation was carried out by screening blood samples of patients who attended the Ahmadu Bello University Clinic (Sickbay) and Jama'a hospital in Samaru, Zaria to determine the occurrence of malaria and typhoid parasites in the area. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected with new disposable syringes from 264 patients during the period of study of 3 months. Blood films were stained with Giemsa stain, air- dried, treated with immersion oil, and examined under high-power objective of the microscope. Malaria parasites were identified based on their ring forms. The Widal test was used to detect the presence of Salmonella antibodies in the patient's serum. Result: Majority of the people screened 143 (84.1%) adults were not infected while 27 (15.9%) had malaria parasites in their blood stream. Only 20 (21.3%) of the children screened were positive for malaria parasites. Two Plasmodium parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax were detected in the blood samples. Plasmodium falciparum was found to be significantly higher than P. vivax. More adults from age 19 and older had typhoid pathogens (57.0%) in their blood samples than children who were 18 years and younger (21.2%). A small but significant proportion (15.2%) of those screened were co-infected with malaria and typhoid. Conclusion: Malaria and typhoid are diseases of poverty that are still endemic in developing countries. It requires the combined effort of the government at all levels, the scientific community and co-operation of every member of the society to conquer these re-emerging diseases.
  3,429 2,479 -
Differences in pattern of menstruation between Kaduna and Rivers State Women of Nigeria
Progress Dakuro Victor, Barnabas Danborno, Samuel S Adebisi
July-December 2015, 3(2):37-41
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.173980  
Aim: This study was designed to investigate and compare the menarcheal age, menstrual cycle regularity, menstrual flow duration, prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and symptoms during menstruation (SDM), in women from Kaduna and Rivers states, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Nonpregnant, nulliparous women from Rivers (n = 401, mean ± SD: 22.55 ± 3.78) and Kaduna (n = 387, mean 22.10 ± SD 2.62) states aged 18-30 years participated in the study. Subjects were randomly selected from some higher institutions in Kaduna and Rivers states. Data were obtained using a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was higher in Rivers women than in their Kaduna counterparts, but there was no significant difference. The minimum and maximum menarcheal ages for this study were 10 years and 19 years respectively. The results showed that 311 (80.4%) of Kaduna females and 288 (71.8%) of Rivers females experienced regular menstrual cycles; 245 (63.3%) of Kaduna females and 324 (80.8%) of Rivers females experienced a menstrual flow duration of 4-6 days. Most of the study participants experienced at least one premenstrual symptom (Kaduna: 387 or 100%; Rivers: 366 or 91.3%) and one SDM (Kaduna: 36 or; 95.1%; Rivers 397 or 99%); the comparison of PMS and SDM between subjects from the two states showed a significant difference (c2 = 35.348, P = 0.000; and c2 = 10.637, P = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: A difference was observed between the menstrual patterns of women from Kaduna and Rivers states.
  2,022 2,729 -
Comparative histologic anatomy of vertebrate liver
Emmanuel Igho Odokuma, Emmanuel Itiosa Omokaro
January-June 2015, 3(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.160728  
Introduction: The aim of the study was to compare the histological features of the liver of vertebrates and demonstrate the possible histological evolutionary trend within the sub-phylum vertebrata. Materials and Methods: Liver tissues were dissected from the five vertebrate classes; the Fish (Cat-fish - Clarias gariepinus), Amphibian (Rana tigrina), Reptilian (Lizard - Agama aculeata), Avian (Domestic bird-Gallus gallus domesticus), and Mammalian (Wistar rat- Rattus norvegicus) were used for the study. The tissue samples were fixed in 10% formal-saline and processed using standard histological techniques. The liver tissues were studied with a light microscope and photomicrographs were obtained. Results: The results showed structural similarities of the liver across the sub-phylum, with noticeable differences in the hepato-sinusoidal arrangements, composition and association of the bile duct and presence of portal triad. The study observed a gradual transition of hepatocytes distributions in singles and clusters to cord-like as observed in Gallus gallus domesticus and Rattus norvegicus. The study also revealed incomplete portal triad in Clarias gariepinus and Rana tigrina. The observed variations were attributed to adaption, feeding mechanism, mode of nutrition and selective specialization, which are important ecological and biological changes involved in evolution. Conclusion: This study has established that evolutionary trends occurred within the subphylum vertebrata.
  4,070 383 3
The distribution of widow's peak trait among young adults of the Isoko ethnic group in Delta State, Nigeria
Ese Anibor, Eloho Ogbor-Omorie, Adaeze Eucharia Opiah
July-December 2015, 3(2):47-49
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.173985  
Background to the Study: This study was carried out with the aim of determining gender differences in the distribution of widow's peak among the young adults of the Isoko ethnic group of the southern part of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and sixty (660) adults of both sexes (330 males and 330 females) between the ages of 18 years and 35 years were used for the study. Simple random sampling technique was used for the study. Determination of widow's peak was based on an observational study. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi-square test, with the aid of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 20. P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Result: The result of the study revealed that a lower percentage of males (15.45%) did present with widow's peak, while it was 16.36% for females. There was no significant gender difference concerning widow's peak distribution among the Isoko males and females (P > 0.05). Conclusion: This study provides normative data for widow's peak distribution among the Isoko ethnic group. This study provides guidelines for designing the hairline in the study population.
  3,778 410 -
Testosterone and second-to-fourth digit ratio: Their relationships in adolescent males and females of Igbo Ethnic group in Nigeria
Chikezie Jude Okamkpa, Barnabas Danborno, Shehu A Akuyam
January-June 2015, 3(1):10-13
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.160733  
Background: The ratio of the second-to-fourth finger lengths (2D:4D) demonstrates a reliable sexual dimorphism across human ethnic groups. It may be established in utero and is negatively correlated with sperm counts and testosterone in men and positively correlated with estrogen in men and women. In view of its clinical importance, this study was carried out to document values of the 2 nd to 4 th digit ratio in the Igbo ethnic group of Nigerian population and to investigate its relationship with testosterone. Materials and Methods: A sample of 412 subjects (209 boys and 203 girls) between ages 12 and 20 years were recruited randomly for this study. Finger lengths were measured twice, using an electronic Vernier calliper (precision 0.01 mm). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone. Results: Men had lower 2D:4D ratio (0.98 ± 0.01 for the right and left hand) than women (0.99 ± 0.01 for both hands). These differences in 2D:4D between sexes were statistically significant (P < 0.001 for both hands). The other digit ratios were also lower in men than women for both hands. These differences were statistically significant for all digit ratios except for the 3D:5D and 3D:4D ratio of the both hands. Conclusion: Testosterone had an inverse relationship with 2D: 4D of both hands in males, as well as females' left hands. This result confirms that digit ratios are sexually dimorphic and useful markers of disease predisposition.
  3,193 191 -
Body mass index of male and female Wistar rats following administration of leptin hormone after a dietary regime
Ahmed Muhammed Rabiu, H Wale, K Garba, AM Sabo, Z Hassan, AI Shugaba, UG Egesie, SO Odeh
January-June 2017, 5(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/aoba.aoba_17_16  
Introduction: Obesity is a problem affecting people of all ages and socioeconomic status. Leptin hormone (LH), a product of the obesity gene, is a key regulator of feeding and energy expenditure. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the effect of LH on body mass index (BMI) in Wistar rats after a diet regime. Materials and Methods: Forty rats (male [M], n = 20; female [F], n = 20), aged 9 weeks and weighing 77.2–123.0 g, were randomly divided into two Groups A (M) and B (F) and further divided into four subgroups of n = 5. They were maintained ad libitum on different diet and water for 10 weeks. Group 1; control (standard rat feed), Group 2 (high fat diet), Group 3 (protein diet), and Group 4 (carbohydrate diet). BMI was calculated weekly for 10 weeks (pretest). LH was injected for 2 weeks; the BMI was then calculated (posttest). Paired t-test was used to analyze the differences between the BMI pre- and post-test periods and also to analyze for sexual dimorphism for the pre- and post-test periods. Level of significance was at P < 0.05. Results: The results revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the BMI for the pre- and post-test period and no sexual dimorphism for BMI during the pretest period. However, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) and sexual dimorphism for BMI during the posttest period. Conclusion: This result implies that the LH is more effective in the male gender than the female when considering BMI and hence may reduce the risk associated with obesity.
  2,932 326 -
Regenerative effects of aqueous extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative damages in testes of male Wistar rats
Oyetunji Adeoye Oyewopo, Ade Steven Alabi, Aminu Imam, Gabriel Godson Akunna
July-December 2016, 4(2):65-70
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.204684  
Introduction: Adansonia digitata (AD) is a multipurpose tree species widely used for food and non-food products and medicine. Every part of the baobab tree is reported to be useful. However, exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (including vapor) had been reported to be injurious to human health. Aim: The present study investigated the effects of AD fruit pulp extracts on CCl4-induced testicular toxicity. Materials and Method: Twenty (20) adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C, and D) with five rats in each group. Group A received distilled water, group B received a single oral dose of CCl4(2.5 mL/kg) for two days, group C received 500 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of Adansonia, and group D received 2.5 mL/kg of CCl4for two days followed by 500 mg/kg body weight Adansonia aqueous extracts for 14 days. The animals were autopsied 3 weeks after CCl4and AD extracts injection. Results: Result showed that CCl4induced oxidative damage in testes and decreased the hormonal level of testosterone (TT). AD extracts normalized the testicular damages caused by CCl4. Pretreatment with AD ameliorated the testicular content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Similarly, AD treatment attenuated the CCl4-induced increase in hormonal level. In conclusion, AD ameliorated and protected the testes against CCl4-induced oxidative damages and deranged sperm characteristics in adult Wistar rats.
  1,335 1,648 -
Anthropometric study of canthal and circumference interorbital indices among young Urhobo adults in South-South Nigeria
Dennis E. O. Eboh, Eloho O Ogbor-Omorie, Justina O Dibie
July-December 2015, 3(2):42-46
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.173983  
Background: Craniofacial anthropometric parameters have been found to be relevant in anthropology as well as clinical and surgical practices. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the canthal and circumference interorbital indices among young Urhobo adults, in South-South Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The simple random sampling technique was adopted in this descriptive anthropometric study that involved 601 participants. Inner and outer canthal distances were measured using the nonstretchable plastic centimeter ruler while the nonstretchable tailor tape was used for measurement of the head circumference. Canthal and circumference interorbital indices were calculated based on standard formulae. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics, with the aid of the statistical package of social sociences, version 20. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Results showed that all linear dimensions for males were significantly higher than females. There were no significant gender differences regarding the canthal and circumference interorbital indices. Canthal index-inner canthal distance, circumference interorbital index-inner canthal distance, circumference interorbital index-head circumference, and circumference interorbital index-canthal index correlations were significant (P < 0.05) while canthal index-outer canthal distance correlation was not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: There were no significant gender differences regarding canthal and circumference interorbital indices.
  2,396 585 -
Evaluation of the lumbar-sacral configuration: A radiographic study of young adults in Southern Nigeria
Michael Omonkheoa Oyakhire, Alaba Udoaka
January-June 2017, 5(1):1-8
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.210251  
Introduction: Compared with other populations, African spines, have not been adequately studied and consequently, surgical interventions on the spine rely on assumptions and data from studies done on non-Nigerians. Materials and Methods: Lateral lumbosacral X-ray films of 120 informed volunteers who met relevant inclusion criteria were studied. Three parameters frequently employed to characterize the lumbosacral region in the assessment of spinal health; Lumbar Lordotic Angle (LLA), Lumbar Lordotic Depth (LLD) and Lumbosacral Angle (LSA),were measured using standard radiographic procedures. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Confidence interval was set at 95% defining P ≤ 0.05 of statistical significance. Results: On the average, the subjects were 27 years old (males 28 and females 24). Mean (SE) of weight was 66.59 (1.06) kg; males 65.71 (1.18) kg, females 67.80 (2.04) kg. Mean (SE) of height was 1.66 (0.01) m, females 1.6 (0.01) m, males 1.69 (0.01). Mean (SE) of BMI was 24.32 (0.41); males 23.04 (0.39), females 26.45 (0.79). Mean (SE) of LSA was 31.12 (0.46) 0; females 32.04 (0.91) 0, males 30.56 (0.50) 0.Mean (SE) LLA 51.34 (0.76) 0; females 49.84 (1.23) 0, males 52.24 (0.96) 0.Mean (SE) LLD 3.23 (0.04) cm; males 3.15 (0.05) cm, females 3. 36 (0.07) cm. Significant associations were found between the following variables; age and LLA (r2= 0.158, P < 0.001), age and LLD (r2 = 0.224, P < 0.001), LSA and LLA (r2 = 0.034, P = 0.044), LSA and LLD (r2 = 0.042, P = 0.024), LLA and LLD (r2 = 0.555, P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study is probably the first to be carried out on living subjects in Nigeria and the data it provides will be useful for further research and will also add to existing knowledge on African spines.
  2,288 496 1
Sexual dimorphism in frontal sinus of Southeast Nigerians
Uchenna Kenneth Ezemagu, C I. P Anibeze, Frank Chinedu Akpuaka
January-June 2017, 5(1):14-17
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.210248  
Background: The functional and adaptive significance of frontal sinus is still very poorly understood and attempt to link frontal sinus patterns with specific influences such as sex or biological affinity have been inconclusive. Purpose: The study aims to demonstrate the influence and this relationship between the variation in frontal sinus dimensions and sex. Materials and Method: In this study, lateral and anteroposterior radiographs of 74 males and 46 females of Southeast Nigerians taken from August 18, 2003 to July 12, 2004 were measured (age 9–75). Data were analyzed using excel package of a desktop computer, employing Chi-square test to determine the association between sinus dimensions and sex. Result: The result showed that variation in frontal sinus breadth and depth may not depend on sex while variation in height slightly depends on sex (P < 0.05). Thus, establishing the fact that some metric and morphologic characteristics of the frontal sinus depend on sex. Conclusion: This finding depicts a sexual dimorphism in frontal sinus dimension. Moreover, it adds an additional factor to the puzzle of the meaning of the supra orbital development and morphologic characteristics.
  2,546 226 -
Index and ring finger lengths and their correlation with stature in a Nigerian population
GS Oladipo, Gloria Ezi, PD Okoh, AO Abidoye
January-June 2015, 3(1):18-21
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.160742  
Introduction: This study was carried out to determine the relationship of the index and ring fingers to stature for the purpose of predicting stature in a Nigerian population. Materials and Methods: Measurement of various parameters was done with the aid of a digital stadiometer and a digital Vernier caliper. The stadiometer was used to measure the heights of individuals, while the digital Vernier caliper was used to measure the lengths of the right index (R2D) and right ring (R4D) fingers. Statistical analysis, which included the t-test, Pearson correlation, and regression analysis, was carried out with the aid of SPSS version 19.0. Results: From the results, it can be seen that all parameters investigated were higher in males (P < 0.05) and that the correlations between R2D and stature and between R4D and stature were significant across gender. Our results also showed that it is possible to estimate the stature of an unknown Nigerian from the lengths of the second and fourth digits. Conclusion: Thus, this study has demonstrated a means of identification, especially in case of accident with lacerated remains in Nigeria. This paper is recommended to forensic experts, road safety officers, and the Government of Nigeria for the aforementioned purposes.
  2,487 272 -
Finger and palmar dermatoglyphic study among the Yorubas in Jos, Nigeria
Adebanji M Akingbade, Linus C Saalu, Gabriel G Akunna, Linus E Anderson, FS Olusolade
July-December 2014, 2(2):49-53
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.153815  
Introduction: Palm prints and toe prints are epidermal ridges that form early in fetal life and are unique to each individual. This means that they can be used for personal identification in criminal investigations. They are useful in diagnosis since recurring abnormal patterns are often seen in a variety of genetic syndromes. Materials and Methods: In this study, the palm prints of 170 young Yoruba students consisting of 75 males aged between 8 years and 19 years, and 95 females aged between 7 years and 18 years were used for the measurement of the ADT angle, AB ridge count (ABRC), and total ridge count (TRC) after informed consent. The patterns were obtained using the ink method and these were taken on white duplicating paper. The ridges were counted using hand lens and needle while the ADT angles were measured with a protractor. Results: The finding of higher values of ABRC (70.77), TRC (123.07), and the average ADT angle (40.42) in female Yorubas compared with males were 68.31, 122.39, and 39.29, respectively, and is in conflict with the results of most of the studies documented in other scientific journals. Conclusion: Our study without a doubt confirms that anthropometric dissimilarities subsist based on sex. The data submitted herein can provide useful information to the forensic investigators and scientist in solving cases especially when it involves individuals from the Yoruba ethnic group.
  1,854 728 -
Estimation of stature using arm span length amongst Bekwara ethnic group of Cross River State, Nigeria
Ugochukwu Godfrey Esomonu, OM Ijomone, C Mba, A Oranusi
July-December 2015, 3(2):55-58
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.173990  
Introduction: The research was carried out to obtain the linear regression equation for the estimation of stature using arm span length amongst the Bekwara ethnic group of Cross River State. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 600 subjects (300 males and 300 females), aged 6 to 30 years, the subjects were further grouped into five sub age groups of 6-10, 11- 15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30 years old. Result: The mean values of arm span length and stature for males of Bekwara ethnic group, irrespective of age group are 169.9±23cm and 158.4±19cm while females recorded 162.3±17cm and 154.0±13cm respectively. The arm span length to stature difference in males of Bekwara ethnic group is 11.5±7.2cm and 8.3±5.6cm in females, but the mean ASD value irrespective of sex was observed to be 9.9±6.6cm. Pearson correlation coefficients of stature and arm span length were recorded for both male and female as 0.977 and 0.959 respectively. Linear regression equation determined for males in Bekwara ethnic group is 25.71+ (0.781 x arm span) with a recorded estimated stature of 158.2cm, while that of females is 31.83+ (0.753x arm span) with stature estimate of 154.0cm. Conclusion: The arm span length of Bekwara ethnic group indigenes has proven to be an efficient anthropometric body segment parameter that can be employed in the estimation of stature among wheelchair athletes, bed ridden patients or in persons with disabilities involving amputation of the lower limb, or other deformities like scoliosis which does affect the standing ability.
  2,398 179 -
Plantar aponeurosis thickness and foot arch index: Any significant structural relationship?
Egwu A Ogugua
January-June 2014, 2(1):17-22
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.143402  
Introduction: The Plantar fascia has been linked to the structural integrity of the human arch. However, no statistical relationship has been established. This work aimed at establishing a statisticostructural relationship between the plantar aponeurosis thickness (PAT) and the arch index. Materials and Methods: PAT was measured by ultrasound while foot anthropometric parameters were measured using the methods established by Huang et al. (2004) and Krishan (2007). Results: There was a significant meaningful correlation between PAT and arch index (r<0.05) and a significant negative correlation between PAT and Breadth at heel. There was no correlation between PAT and various aspects of length of the foot. Conclusion: This result infers that there is a direct structural and statistical relationship between the plantar fascia thickness and the foot arch index. This relationship can be very useful in the surgical release plantar fascia and management of plantar fasciitis.
  2,274 259 -
A study of the nasal index of Berom students in Plateau State Polytechnic, Jos
Ekwere O Ekwere, Usman M Yohanna, Ibrahim S Lawal
July-December 2015, 3(2):70-72
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.174014  
Introduction: The nasal index is a very important anthropometric assessment parameter for forensic anthropology and facial surgeries. This study was, therefore, aimed at determining the mean nasal index and its sexual dimorphism among the Berom ethnic group of Plateau State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: For this study, 500 subjects comprising 250 males and 250 females with ages from 18 years to 45 years were recruited. Informed consent was obtained. Nasal height was measured with a sliding Vernier caliper while the nasal width was measured with a transparent graded meter rule. The nasal index was then calculated as the ratio of nasal width and nasal height multiplied by 100. The data was subjected to statistical analysis using the software package Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 17.0. Results: The mean nasal index was found to be 93.09 ± 4.92 and the study also revealed statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher nasal index in males than in females of 93.66 ± 4.40 and 92.52 ± 5.34, respectively. Conclusion: The Berom ethnic group falls under the platyrrhine (broad nose) type that is the typical African nose type and have significant difference in male and female nasal index.
  2,380 149 -
Prediction of stature from hand length and breadth – anthropometric study on an adult Cross River State population
Rademene Sunday Oria, Anozeng Oyono Igiri, Ogugua A Egwu, Micheal Ebe Nandi
January-June 2016, 4(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.190462  
Introduction: Stature estimation occupies a relatively dominant position in anthropometric research. It is believed that standards for identifying skeleton differ from population to population and the method for one population may not be applicable for another population. Materials and Method: This study was carried out to determine the reliability of hand dimensions in estimating stature in an adult Cross River State population. The subjects comprised 1050 adult indigenes (540 male and 510 female) of Cross River State between the ages of 18 and 45 years drawn from the three senatorial districts South, Central, and North. Results: Stature in male had a mean value of 168.49 ± 5.53 cm whereas in females it was 162.99 ± 5.91 cm. Also, hand length in male subjects was 19.47 ± 2.00 cm while in females, hand length measured 18.35 ± 1.03 cm. In addition, the mean handbreadth in males was 8.47 ± 0.54 cm while in females, handbreadth was 7.91 ± 0.64 cm. Statistical analysis indicated that the difference in hand length and handbreadth between male and female was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Also, a positive correlation coefficient was observed between hand dimensions measured and stature in both sexes. Conclusion: However, hand length was more reliable in estimating stature in both male and female subjects. These results will be of immense benefit to forensic studies and bioanthropology.
  2,266 248 1
Relationship between age at menarche and anthropometric profiles, demography, and ethnicity among adolescent girls in Nigeria
Monday Nwankwo, Barnabas Danborno, Wilson Oliver Hamman
January-June 2016, 4(1):1-7
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.190468  
Introduction: This study was made to evaluate and compare the age at menarche among Nigerian schoolgirls from Hausa and Igbo ethnic groups, and to examine whether ethnicity, demographics, and selected anthropometric characteristics of the studied population influence age at menarche. This was a retrospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: Data pertaining to menarche, ethnicity, and demographics were collected using questionnaires from 800 secondary schoolgirls of Nigeria, in 2014. Six hundred (600) were postmenarcheal, while 200 were premenarcheal. Among the schoolgirls, 300 postmenarcheal and 100 premenarcheal girls were of Hausa and Igbo descent, respectively. We compared the mean age at menarche of girls based on ethnicity, demographics, and the anthropometric parameters of menstruating and nonmenstruating girls. The relationship between anthropometric indices and age at menarche was determined. Results: Mean age at menarche among girls from Igbo ethnicity is lower than that of girls of Hausa ethnicity. Compared to rural girls, girls from urban centers reach menarche earlier. The mean age at menarche of the entire sample population was 13.54 ± 0.90 years. Mean ages at menarche of Hausa and Igbo girls were 13.65 ± 0.92 years and 13.44 ± 0.87 years, respectively. Mean body mass index (BMI) values in postmenarcheal and premenarcheal age were 20.50 ± 2.13 kg/m2 and 17.64 ± 1.40 kg/m2, respectively. The mean weight and height of menstruating girls were 49.02 ± 3.85 kg and 154.92 ± 0.05 cm, respectively, while those of nonmenstruating girls were 38.83 ± 2.60 kg and 147.56 ± 3.54 cm, respectively. Conclusion: Ethnicity, demographics, and selected anthropometric measurements have influence on age at menarche. Girls of Igbo ethnicity reach maturity earlier than those of Hausa descent, girls in urban centers have lower age at menarche, and the anthropometric measurements of menstruating girls are higher than those of nonmenstruating girls.
  2,122 385 1
Angular photogrammetric analysis of the facial profile of the adults of Bini ethnicity of Nigeria
Vitalis C Ezeuko, Paul O Eboigbe
January-June 2015, 3(1):14-17
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.160737  
Context: The face is the most important aspect of human identification. It also functions as the centre of attraction and appearance. Aim: The aim of this study was to characterize the facial profiles of Bini using angular photogrammetric analyses. Materials and Methods: A total number of four hundred Bini volunteers between the age range 18 to 30 years comprising two hundred males and two hundred females were recruited for this study. The photographs were taken with the subject keeping their heads in natural head at a distance of 150 cm from the camera in a well illuminated room in candescent light. All photographs were exported to Adobe Photoshop CS 5 Extended. The angle studied were nasofacial, nasofrontal, nasolabial and nasomental angles. Statistical analysis was done by using program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Comparisons were made of all the facial angles studied between males and females using the students' t-test. Results: There was statistically significant sexual dimorphism in three of the angles measured. The nasofrontal angle was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in females (133.80 ± 0.40) than in males (128.00 ± 0.60). The nasofacial angle was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in males (35.580 ± 0.0) than in females (34.30 ± 0.20). The nasomental angle was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in females (128.10 + 0.30) than in males (126.90 ± 0.40). There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) between the nasolabial angle of the males (76.20 ± 0.80) and that of the females (75.90 ± 0.70). Conclusion: This study has shown as in most other populations that the angular variables in tissue profile are sexually dimorphic among the Bini.
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Comparative histomorphological study of the stomach of Rattus norvergicus, Agama agama, and Bufo marinus
Joseph A Nwafor, Ferdinand A OM' Niabohs
July-December 2014, 2(2):54-58
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.153817  
Introduction: The histological view of the stomach presents an adaptation favoring the diets of each particular animal. The histoarchitectural organization, including the distribution of connective tissue fibers, provides a useful interpretation of the adaptative mechanisms adopted by the guts of different animals in coping with their diets. The rat is a mammal; the lizard, a reptile; and the toad, an amphibian. Their modes of diet are different and, as such, the organs involved in their diets show variation. Materials and Methods: We aimed to make a comparative study of the stomachs of the three types of animals in relation to their diet. Five adult Wistar rats, five adult agama lizards, and five adult cane toads of the same sex were used for this investigation. Result: The results revealed a sharp contrast in the histology of the stomachs among these vertebrates. A cursory look into the morphology of the stomach with regard to its shape and size also revealed significant differences. Conclusion: All of these observations on the histomorphologic pattern of the stomachs of these vertebrates suggest an adaptation in coping with their respective diets.
  2,172 273 -
Anthropometric study of the nose in a student population
Ukoha U Ukoha, Ogugua A Egwu, Godwin U Ndukwe, Lotanna S Akudu, Kosisochukwu E Umeasalugo
January-June 2016, 4(1):8-11
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.190461  
Background: Human nose differs in its anatomy and morphology among different racial and ethnic groups. Objective: The objective of this study was to establish and compare the nasal parameters of male and female subjects in a student population. Materials and Methods: Five hundred (500) subjects were selected at random comprising 250 males and 250 females. The ages of the subject ranged from 18 years to 25 year. Nasal heights, breadths, and pronasal distances were measured using a Mitutoyo manual vernier caliper. The nasal indices were calculated. Result: The mean heights of the nose in males and females were 4.61 ± 0.58 cm and 4.30 ± 0.54 cm, respectively. The mean breadths of the nose in males and females were 4.12 ± 0.52 cm and 3.68 ± 0.46 cm, respectively. The mean pronasal distances of the nose in males and females were 1.86 ± 0.23 cm and 1.72 ± 0.22 cm, respectively. The mean nasal index of the nose in the males and females were 89.95 ± 11.26 and 85.71 ± 10.76, respectively. The result showed sexual dimorphism, with significantly higher values of all the parameters in males compared to the females (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The result of the study showed that the mean nasal index of the subjects irrespective of their ethnic groups falls within the nose type platyrrhine.
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Anthropometric analysis of the nose of the Ejagham ethnic group in Cross River State, Nigeria
Esomonu G Ugochukwu, OM Ijomone, RA Ude, EM Nandi
January-June 2014, 2(1):13-16
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.143401  
Introduction: The normal nose morphology varies in shape and size as a result of ethnic, gender, and environmental influences therefore nasal anthropometry can be employed in classifying the race and sex of the individual whose identity is unknown. This study is aimed at deriving normal standard values for the following nasal anthropometric parameters: Nose height (NH), Nose width (NW), Nose length (NL), and Nasal index (NI) across age and sex for the Ejagham ethnic group in Cross River state of South-Nigeria. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects (50 males and 50 females) aged 21-45 years were recruited for this study, they were further divided into five age sub-groups (21-25, 26-30, 31-35, 36-40, and 41-45 years) to observe the variation of each parameter with advancing age and sexual dimorphism. Results: Sexual dimorphism was noted (P < 0.05) as higher values were observed in males in NW and NI while females showed higher value in NH and NL (P < 0.05). Age related changes were not significant. Applying the international nose anthropometric methods to assess and compare nasal morphological characteristics, both males and females mostly have platyrrhine (broad and short) nose types of NI > 85. Conclusion: This study clearly confirms that anthropometric variation exists based on sex. These measurements in healthy subjects are useful for dysmorphologist in the early identification of some dysmorphic syndromes like cleft-lip associated with nose disorders. The data generated can also provide useful information to the rhinoplastic surgeon especially when nasal reconstruction is sort for by an individual who desire to change his nasal morphology to that of the Ejagham ethnic group of Cross River State.
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CASE REPORTS
Absence of the musculocutaneous nerve in the right upper extremity: An unusual anatomical variation with potential clinical relevance
Gabriel Godson Akunna, Ogugua Augustine Egwu, Joseph A Nwafor, Obinna Uchewa
July-December 2014, 2(2):74-77
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.153821  
Neural variations of the brachium constitute a significant anatomical and clinical entity. Variations in median and musculocutaneous nerves are common, whereas the absence of the musculocutaneous nerve (McN) is very rare. The present report is on the absence of the McN observed in the right upper extremity of a middle-aged Nigerian male cadaver during routine educational dissection in the Department of Anatomy, Ebonyi State University, Nigeria. We observed three separate branches from the median nerve innervating the coracobrachialis muscle, biceps brachii, and brachialis muscles. The muscles that are usually innervated by the McN were innervated by the median nerve in this case. Also, the longest and more distal of these branches (branch to brachialis muscles) pass between the biceps and the brachialis muscle. In the cubital fossa, it lies at the lateral margin of the biceps tendon where it continues as the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. The presence of this anomaly should be considered during surgical interventions and clinical investigations of the arm as this may help plan a surgical procedure in the region of axilla and the arm, traumatology of the shoulder joint, and plastic and reconstructive repair.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Anthropometric evaluation of growth variation in urban dwelling female adolescent school children
Smart Ikechukwu Mbagwu, Nwachukwu Mike Ibeabuchi, Julius Akomaye Aniah, Sunday Aderemi Adelakun
January-June 2015, 3(1):6-9
DOI:10.4103/2315-7992.160732  
Introduction: Growth studies among children are important in health planning and policy making, as it has been observed that the interaction between environmental and genetic constitution is manifested in physical growth. The aim of this work was to investigate the variation in growth patterns of adolescent girls from different socioeconomic status attending schools (a private and public schools) in urban Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was undertaken on 320 adolescent female schoolchildren in Lagos, Nigeria. Six anthropometric measurements, such as weight, stature, sitting height, waist circumference, biacromial breadth, and biceps skinfold were taken into consideration observing ISAK protocol for measurement. Results: The results revealed that the private school girls had consistently higher values than the public school girls. Conclusion: This indicates that a consistent variation pattern in growth exists among the girls studied. Therefore there is need for adequate health monitoring during adolescence.
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